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PHYSICS

GENERAL CHEMISTRY

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

CALCULUS

BIOLOGY

 

 

PHYSICS

Video descriptions

 

Document descriptions

 

Physics: “Ratio units”

video

 

 

Physics: “Scientific notation”. Scientific notation. How to convert numbers in scientific notation into regular notation, and how to convert numbers in regular notation into scientific notation. How to interpret and compare numbers written in scientific notation. The concept of "orders of magnitude". How to use scientific notation on a calculator. How to do calculations involving scientific notation without a calculator

video

 

 

Physics: “One-dimensional kinematics”.  How to solve kinematics problems about general one-dimensional motion

video

Kinematics equations and method

document

Physics: “More on one-dimensional kinematics”.  One-dimensional kinematics. Unit conversion; metric prefixes. Time, position, displacement, velocity, acceleration. Vectors vs. scalars; vector arrows. Using the kinematics equations—a problem. How to do problems with zero acceleration (i.e., constant velocity). A two-object kinematics problem

video

Kinematics equations and method

document

Problems discussed in videos

document

Physics: “Multi-part one-dimensional motion problems”.  Multi-part one-dimensional kinematics problems. A multiple-object kinematics problem

video

Problems discussed in the videos

document

Kinematics equations and method

document

Physics: how to solve kinematics problems about one-dimensional projectile motion

video

Kinematics equations and method

document

Physics: “Sine, cosine, and the unit circle”.  How to use the unit circle to remember values of sine and cosine for certain reference angles.

video

 

 

Physics: trigonometry--how to break an overall vector into components, and how to determine an overall vector from its components

video

 

 

Physics: how to solve kinematics problems about general two-dimensional motion

video

Kinematics equations and method

document

Physics: “Two-dimensional projectile motion”.  The relationship between velocity and acceleration. Two-dimensional projectile motion.

video

Kinematics equations and method

document

Physics: “More on two-dimensional motion”.  Kinematics of general two-dimensional motion. Two-dimensional projectile motion

video

Problems discussed in the videos

document

Kinematics equations and method

document

Physics: “Using Newton's second law”.  Using Newton's second law. Weight, normal force, tension, kinetic friction. Inclined planes

video

 

 

Physics: “More on using Newton’s second law”.  Force. Newton's first law of motion; Newton's second law of motion; Newton's third law of motion. Using Newton's second law. Weight. Ropes and tension. Normal force. Inclined planes. Kinetic friction; static friction

video

Mechanics

document

Physics: “Circular motion”.  Circular motion. Radial acceleration. Application of Newton's second law to movement in vertical circles and in horizontal circles

video

 

 

Physics: “Conservation of mechanical energy”. Kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, spring potential energy. Conservation of mechanical energy. Conservation of momentum

video

Problems discussed in the videos

document

Physics: “Work. Conservation of energy”.  Kinetic energy. Work. Gravitational potential energy. Total mechanical energy. Conservation of mechanical energy. Spring potential energy. Conservation of energy problems

video

Work and energy

document

Physics: “More on work and conservation of energy”.  Kinetic energy. Work and the work-energy theorem. Conservative and nonconservative forces. Gravitational potential energy; spring potential energy. Total mechanical energy. Net Wnc = ΔE. Conservation of energy problems. A problem in which mechanical energy is not conserved.

video

Work and energy

document

Physics: “Conservation of energy & momentum problem”. A problem involving conservation of energy, conservation of momentum, and elastic, inelastic, and totally inelastic collisions

video

Problem discussed in the videos

document

Work and energy

document

Momentum

document

Physics: “Rotational kinematics and torque”.  Rotational kinematics. Angular displacement (Δθ); angular velocity (ω); angular acceleration (α). Torque

video

Problem discussed in the videos

document

Rotation

document

Physics: “Torque”.  Torque and rotational motion.

video

Rotation

document

Physics: “Conservation of energy with rotation”.  Conservation of energy applied to rotational motion.

video

Work and energy

document

Rotation

document

Physics: “Energy, momentum, torque”.  Conservation of momentum, conservation of energy, Newton’s Second Law for translation and rotation. Springs, inclined planes

video

Work and energy

document

Rotation

document

Physics: “Torque. Statics problems”. Torque. Statics problems

video

Rotation

document

Statics

document

Physics: “Statics”.  Translational and rotational equilibrium

video

Rotation

document

Physics: “Rotational statics and dynamics problems”

video

Problems discussed in the videos

document

Rotation

document

Physics: “Oscillations. Springs and pendulums”. Oscillations. Simple harmonic motion. Horizontal springs. Pendulums. Vertical springs. Amplitude, period, frequency, and angular frequency

video

Oscillations

document

Problems discussed in the video

document

 Physics: “Waves. Standing waves”. Waves. Amplitude, frequency, wavelength, wave speed. Standing waves. String fixed at both ends; pipe open at both ends; pipe open at one end and closed at one end

video

Waves

document

Problems discussed in the video

document

Physics: “Waves and oscillations”.  Period, frequency, angular frequency, wavelength, amplitude. Simple harmonic motion; springs; conservation of energy.

video

 

 

Physics: “Wave motion”.  Transverse vs. longitudinal waves. Wave graphs. Velocity (v) versus frequency (f); frequency (f) versus angular frequency (ω)

video

 

 

Physics: “Fluids—pressure and buoyant force”. Pressure; gauge pressure. Density. Buoyant force

video

Problems discussed in videos

document

Physics: “A buoyant-force problem”

video

Problem discussed in the videos

document

Physics: “Ideal gas law. Heat, temperature, phase”.  Pressure; gauge pressure. Ideal gas law. Heat, temperature, and phase changes; specific heat and heat of transformation

video

 

 

Physics: “First Law of Thermodynamics”. First Law of Thermodynamics; internal energy, heat, work. P-V curves. Special processes: isobaric (constant pressure); isochoric (constant volume); cyclic; isothermal (constant temperature); adiabatic (zero heat exchange). State functions

video

 

 

Physics: “Thermodynamic processes”. First Law of Thermodynamics and thermodynamic processes. Isobaric, isochoric (constant volume), isothermal, and adiabatic processes. Molar specific heat (C). A problem involving thermodynamic processes

video

Problem discussed in the videos

document

Physics: “Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics”. Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Entropy as a state function. General formulas for calculating entropy change. How to calculate entropy change for phase change or temperature change problems. The Second Law of Thermodynamics; reversible vs. irreversible processes. Entropy change in isothermal processes, adiabatic processes, and adiabatic free expansions

video

Problem discussed in the videos

document

Physics: “Electric field and electric force”.  Electric charge. Electric force; Coulomb’s law. Net electric force from a charge distribution; the superposition principle. Electric field. Coulomb’s law for electric field. Net electric field from a charge distribution; the superposition principle for electric field

video

Electric field and force; electric potential and potential energy

document

Physics: “Coulomb’s law”

video

Problem discussed in the videos

document

Physics: “Electric field lines and Gauss's law”.  Electric field lines. Electric flux. Gauss's law. Using Gauss's law to determine the electric field from charge distributions with spherical symmetry and plane symmetry

video

Electric field and force; electric potential and potential energy

document

Problem discussed in the videos

document

Physics: “Electric potential and potential energy”.  Electric potential energy. Electric potential. Electric potential difference (“voltage”) and change in electric potential energy

video

Electric field and force; electric potential and potential energy

document

Physics: “Application of Gauss's law to line symmetry”.  Using Gauss's law to determine the electric field from a charge distribution with line symmetry. Determining the electric potential difference from a nonuniform electric field.

video

Problem discussed in the videos

document

Electric field and force; electric potential and potential energy

document

Physics: “Electric circuits. Resistors”.  Electric circuits. Voltage sources and drops. Current. Current and voltage for circuit elements in series or parallel. Kirchhoff's loop law; Kirchhoff’s node law. Resistance. Ohm's law. Equivalent resistance for resistors in series or parallel

video

Electric field and force; electric potential and potential energy

document

Physics: “A problem involving electric current”

video

Problem discussed in the video

document

Physics: “Adding resistors to electric circuits”.  Adding or dropping resistors to electric circuits, in series or parallel--effects on equivalent resistance, current, voltage, and power.

video

 

 

Physics: “Magnetic field and force. Right-hand rules”.  Right-hand rule for the direction of the magnetic force on a moving charge; right-hand rule for the direction of the magnetic force on a current-carrying wire. Magnitude of the magnetic force on a moving charge; magnitude of the magnetic force on a current-carrying wire. Right-hand rule for the direction of the magnetic field from a long straight wire. The magnitude of the magnetic field from a long straight wire

video

Electric field and force; electric potential and potential energy

document

Magnetic field and force

document

Physics: “Net magnetic field from current-carrying wires”.  Sources of electric and magnetic fields. Net magnetic field from multiple current-carrying wires. Magnetic force on a moving charge. Right-hand rules. Circular trajectory of a charged particle in a magnetic field

video

Problem discussed in the videos

document

Electric field and force; electric potential and potential energy

document

Magnetic field and force

document

Physics: “Balancing electric and magnetic forces”. Selecting particles of a particular velocity by adjusting electric and magnetic fields; using the right-hand rule for magnetic force.

video

Problem discussed in the videos

document

Physics: “Electromagnetic induction. Faraday's law”.  Magnetic flux. Electromagnetic induction; induced emf; induced current. Faraday's law of induction; Lenz's law. Two problems with changing magnetic field; a problem with changing area

video

Electric field and force; electric potential and potential energy

document

Magnetic field and force

document

Electromagnetic induction

document

Physics: “Capacitors and inductors; RC and RL circuits”.  Behavior of voltage, charge and current over time in electric circuits with capactors; charging and discharging RC circuits; the time constant. Behavior of voltage and current over time in circuits with inductors; RL circuit with battery, and with battery removed

video

 

 

Physics: “Alternating current; RLC circuits”.  Alternating current (AC) circuits. Root-mean-square (rms) voltage and current. Resistors, capacitors, and inductors in AC circuits; phasor diagrams for resistors, capacitors, and inductors. Power in AC circuits. Reactance (X); impedance (Z). Resonant frequency. An RLC circuit problem

video

Problems discussed in videos

document

Physics: “Electromagnetic waves”. Electromagnetic waves. Intensity. The right-hand-rule for determining the direction of propagation. Amplitude, wavelength, and frequency. Peak electric and magnetic field strengths

video

Problems discussed in the videos

document

Physics: “Polarization. Law of Malus”. Polarization of electromagnetic waves. The Law of Malus

video

 

 

Physics: “Optics of lenses and mirrors”.  Introduction to the optics of lenses and mirrors. Concave, convex, converging, diverging; real, virtual; upright, inverted, magnified, shrunk. Sign conventions for focal length, image distance, object distance, magnification. The lens/mirror equation; the magnification equation. Introduction to ray tracing.

video

Problems discussed in videos

document

Optics

document

Physics: “Lenses and mirrors. Ray tracing”. Lenses and mirrors. Ray tracing. Harder problems

video

Optics

document

Problems discussed in video

document

Physics: “Multiple lenses and mirrors”. Multiple lenses and mirrors. Ray tracing when the object distance is negative

video

Optics

document

Problem discussed in video

document

Physics: “Correcting nearsightedness and farsightedness”. Correcting nearsightedness and farsightedness; optics of glasses and contact lenses. Near point and far point. Lens power; diopters

video

 

 

Physics: “Lenses and mirrors. Snell’s law”. Radius of curvature. Plane mirrors; ray tracing. Magnification. Special cases--object distance = infinity; object distance = f; object distance = 2f; object distance = 0. Reflection. The speed of light and index of refraction. Refraction; Snell’s law.

video

Problems discussed in videos

document

Optics

document

Physics: “Lenses, mirrors, the eye”.  Lenses and mirrors. Magnification. Ray tracing. Optics of the eye—normal vision

video

Optics

document

Physics: “Lenses, mirrors, reflection, refraction”.  Lenses, mirrors, ray tracing. Reflection. Refraction; Snell's Law; the index of refraction; n=c/v

video

Optics

document

Problem discussed in video (1)

document

Physics: “Huygens’ principle; mirrors; the eye”. Huygens’ principle. A lens/mirror problem. An eye problem.

video

Optics

document

Problems discussed in videos

document

Physics: “Light, lenses, mirrors; relativity”.  Light and waves. Lenses and mirrors. A relativity problem.

video

Optics

document

Problems discussed in videos

document

Physics: “Double-slit experiment. Diffraction gratings. Thin films”.  Interference and diffraction. Double-slit experiment. Diffraction gratings (multiple slit experiment). Thin films

video

Problems discussed in the video

document

Physics: “Intensity of EM waves. Multiple lenses”. Power, intensity, and radiation pressure from electromagnetic waves; the Poynting vector. A multiple lens problem. An eye problem. A contact lens problem

video

Problems discussed in this video series

document

Optics

document

Physics: “Intensity. Multiple lenses. Polarization”. Electromagnetic waves—intensity, power, peak electric and magnetic fields. Ray tracing for multiple lenses. Polarization. The Brewster (polarizing) angle. A camera problem.

video

Problems discussed in this video series

document

Optics

document

Physics: “Interference and diffraction”.  "In phase" vs. "out of phase". Constructive vs. destructive interference. Double-slit interference. Multiple slit interference / diffraction gratings. Single-slit diffraction; Huygens' principle. Thin films

video

 

 

Physics: “Thin films”. Thin films. Double-slit interference

video

Problems discussed in this video series

document

Physics: “Thin films; the eye; lenses and mirrors”. A relativity problem. A problem involving the Doppler effect and diffraction gratings. Thin films. Optics of the eye and of corrective lenses. Lenses and mirrors

video

Problems discussed in this video series

document

Optics

document

Physics: “Polarization. Total internal reflection”. Polarization of light; the law of Malus. CDs, DVDs, and the diffraction limit. A glasses problem. Refraction, Snell's law, total internal reflection. The Brewster (polarizing) angle.

video

Problems discussed in this video series

document

Physics: “Special relativity”. Special relativity. Length contraction. Time dilation. Relativistic energy and momentum

video

Relativity

document

Problems discussed in this video

document

Physics: “De Broglie wavelength. Bohr atom”. Quantum mechanics--wave/particle duality and quantization. Photons: wavelength, energy, frequency (E=hf). Electrons and other particles with mass: de Broglie wavelength, momentum, energy. The Bohr model of the atom

video

Problems discussed in this video series

document

Physics: “De Broglie wavelength. Photon energy”. Power and intensity of electromagnetic wavefronts. Blackbody radiation. Photons (E=hf). The de Broglie wavelength. The Bohr atom

video

Problems discussed in this video series

document

Physics: “Photoelectric effect”. Quantum mechanics. Photoelectric effect. De Broglie wavelength. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.

video

 

 

Physics: “Quantum numbers. Intensity, photons”.  Quantum mechanics. Quantum numbers and the periodic table; allowed quantum numbers. Problems about intensity, photon energy (E=hf), de Broglie wavelength, and the Bohr model of the atom.

video

Problems discussed in this video series

document

Physics: “Particle in a box. Quantum numbers”. Quantum mechanics. Infinite square well (“particle in a box”)—how to calculate probabilities using the wave function; electron energy-level transitions via photon absorption. Quantum numbers and the periodic table; allowed quantum numbers

video

Problems discussed in this video series

document

Physics: “Some quantum number problems”. Some quantum number problems, involving possible quantum numbers and ground-state electron configurations

video

Problems discussed in this video series

document

Physics: “Nuclear physics”. Nuclear physics. Protons, neutrons, and electrons. Mass number (A) and atomic number (“charge number”, Z); conventional symbolism for nuclei. Alpha, beta, and gamma particles; alpha, beta, and gamma decay. Mathematics of radioactive decay; decay constant; half-life. Radioactive dating (carbon-14)

video

Problems discussed in this video series

document

Physics: “More nuclear physics”. Nuclear physics. Protons, neutrons, and electrons. Mass number (A) and atomic number (“charge number”, Z); conventional symbolism for nuclei. Alpha, beta, and gamma particles; how decay particles behave in magnetic fields. Mathematics of radioactive decay; decay constant; half-life. Biological effects of radiation; rads, RBE (relative biological effect), rems.

video

Problems discussed in this video series

document

Physics: “Mass defect and binding energy”. Nuclear physics—mass defect and binding energy.

video

Table and problem discussed in this video series

document

 

 

 

 

GENERAL CHEMISTRY

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Video descriptions

 

Document descriptions

 

Chemistry: “Ratio units”

video

 

 

Chemistry: “Scientific notation”. Scientific notation. How to convert numbers in scientific notation into regular notation, and how to convert numbers in regular notation into scientific notation. How to interpret and compare numbers written in scientific notation. The concept of "orders of magnitude". How to use scientific notation on a calculator. How to do calculations involving scientific notation without a calculator

video

 

 

Chemistry: “Stoichiometry”. Chemistry: Stoichiometry. Converting between grams and moles. The mole; Avogadro's number. Converting between moles and molecules. Converting between grams of one molecule and grams of another molecule, using the stoichiometric coefficients from the balanced chemical equation

video

Sources of equivalence statements

document

Chemistry: “Stoichiometry. Atoms, molecules, moles”.  Stoichiometry. Atoms and molecules. Unit conversion, metric prefixes, equivalence statements. Atomic mass unit (amu), mole, Avogadro's number, molar mass. Converting between grams and moles; converting between grams and atoms or molecules

video

Problem discussed in the videos

document

Conversion factors discussed in the videos

document

Sources of equivalence statements

document

Chemistry: “Stoichiometry. ICE tables. Limiting reagent”.  Stoichiometry. Balancing chemical equations. Initial-change-end (ICE) tables. Using stoichiometric calculations to determine the amounts of reactants and products. Limiting reagent

video

 

 

Chemistry: “Stoichiometry problems”. Stoichiometry problems. Atomic mass of naturally occurring isotopes. “Mixture problems”

video

Problems discussed in the videos

document

Chemistry: “Mass spectrometry problems”.  Stoichiometry problems involving mass spectrometry

video

Problems discussed in the videos

document

Chemistry: “Heat, temperature, and phase change”. Heat, temperature, and phase change. Specific heat. Heat of fusion and heat of vaporization

video

Table of specific heats

document

Table of heats of fusion and vaporization

document

Chemistry: “Calorimetry”. Calorimetry. Specific heat and heat capacity. Bomb calorimetry. Coffee-cup calorimetry

video

 

 

Chemistry: "Colligative properties". Colligative properties. Boiling point elevation. Freezing point depression. Vapor pressure lowering; Raoult's law. Osmotic pressure

video

 

 

Chemistry: “Chemical bonding: energy vs. distance graph”.  Graph of energy vs. internuclear distance; chemical bonding, bond length, and bond energy

video

 

 

Chemistry: “Equilibrium. Le Châtelier’s Principle”.  Chemical equilibrium. Reaction quotient (Q). Equilibrium constant (K). Le Châtelier’s principle

video

Equilibrium and completion reactions

document

Chemistry: “Acids and bases. Calculating pH. Titrations”.  Acids and bases. Calculating pH and pOH. Water autoionization; water ion-product constant (Kw). Acid dissociation constant (Ka). Buffer solutions; Henderson-Hasselbach equation. Titrations; equivalence point; half-equivalence point

video

Types of acid/base problems

document

Problems discussed in the videos

document

Chemistry: “Buffer solutions. Logarithms”.  Qualitative introduction to buffer solutions (acid/base chemistry). How to approximate logarithms and pHs without a calculator.

video

 

 

Chemistry: “Buffers. The Henderson-Hasselbach equation”. How to solve quantitative problems about buffer solutions using the Henderson-Hasselbach equation (acid/base chemistry)

video

Problem discussed in the videos

document

Chemistry: “Calculating pH for acid-base titrations”.  Calculating pH at various points on a titration curve. Titration of a strong acid with a strong base--vertical intercept; left of equivalence point; equivalence point; right of equivalence point. Titration of a weak acid with a strong base—vertical intercept; half-equivalence point; equivalence point; right of equivalence point. How to do titration calculations without a calculator

video

Types of acid/base problems

document

Chemistry: “Solubility product (Ksp) and molar solubility”.  Dissolution and precipitation reactions. Solubility product (Ksp) and ion product (Q). Application of ICE tables to dissolution reactions. Molar solubility. How to find the solubility from the Ksp; how to find the Ksp from the solubility. Common ion effect

video

Solubility

document

Chemistry: “Photoelectric effect”.  Energy, frequency, and wavelength of photons. Photoelectric effect

video

Problems discussed in the videos

document

Chemistry: “Bohr model problems”.  Problems involving the Bohr model of electronic transitions for the hydrogen atom and other one-electron species

video

Problems discussed in the videos

document

Chemistry: “Quantum numbers”

video

Problems discussed in the videos

document

Chemistry: “Kinetics--rate laws from experimental data”.  Chemical kinetics. Determining the rate law from experimental data through the method of initial rates. Exponents, rate constant, units for the rate constant. Order of the reaction

video

 

 

Chemistry: “Differential and integrated rate laws”.  Chemical kinetics. Differential rate laws. Method of initial rates. Rate constant; order of the reaction. Zero-order, first-order, and second-order integrated rate laws.

video

Problems discussed in the videos

document

Table discussed in the videos

document

Chemistry: “Chemical kinetics. Reaction mechanisms”.  Chemical kinetics. Reaction mechanisms. Elementary steps; molecularity (unimolecular, bimolecular, termolecular). Rate laws for the overall reaction and for elementary steps. Rate-determining step. Mechanisms with slow first steps. Mechanisms with fast forward and reverse first steps

video

 

 

Chemistry: “Arrhenius equation. Activation energy”.  Chemical kinetics. Arrhenius equation. Logarithms. Activation energy. Reaction energy diagram. Transition state. Catalysis

video

Logarithm properties

document

Chemistry: “Balancing redox reactions”.  Electrochemistry. Oxidation and reduction. Oxidizing agent and reducing agent. Oxidation number, also known as oxidation state. Balancing oxidation-reduction reactions, also known as redox reactions, using the half-reaction method in acidic and basic solutions

video

Redox reactions

document

Chemistry: “Electrochemistry and electrochemical cells”.  Electrochemistry and electrochemical cells. Oxidation and reduction; oxidizing agents vs. reducing agents. Galvanic/voltaic cells. Cathode, anode. Free energy and cell potential. Half-reactions; reduction potentials, oxidation potentials. Salt bridge. Calculating cell potential. Faraday's constant. Work. Equilibrium constant. Nernst equation. Electrolytic cells

video

Problem discussed in the videos

document

Table discussed in the videos

document

Chemistry: “More on electrochemical cells”.  Electrochemistry and electrochemical cells. Anode vs. cathode; oxidation vs. reduction; reduction potentials, oxidation potentials, and cell potentials; electron flow; positive and negative electrodes for galvanic vs. electrolytic cells

video

 

 

Chemistry: “Molecular orbital model”.  Molecular orbital model of covalent bonding. Molecular orbital (MO) energy-level diagrams. Sigma and pi molecular orbitals; bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals; bond order; paramagnetism and diamagnetism. Bonding in homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules

video

Figure discussed in the videos

document

Chemistry: “Transition metals and isomerism”.  Transition metals and isomerism. Transition metal electron configurations for neutral atoms and cations. Coordination compounds; oxidation number and coordination number. Coordination isomers; linkage isomers. Structural isomers vs. stereoisomers. Geometric isomers. Optical isomers

video

 

 

Chemistry: “More on transition metals and isomerism”. Transition metals and coordination compounds. Electron configurations for neutral and cation transition metals. Coordination number; oxidation number. Bidentate ligands; ethylenediamine (“en”). Complex ion geometries (octahedral, square planar, tetrahedral, linear). Isomerism. Geometric isomers; cis and trans. Optical isomers; enantiomers.

video

Tables discussed in the videos

document

Chemistry: “Nomenclature for coordination compounds”.  Nomenclature for transition metal coordination compounds

video

Tables discussed in the videos

document

Chemistry: “Transition metals and the crystal field model”.  Transition metals and the crystal field model. Strong-field case and weak-field case; low-spin case and high-spin case; paramagnetism and diamagnetism; spectrochemical series; colors of complex ions. The localized electron model of bonding in complex ions, also known as the valence bond model

video

Figures discussed in the videos

document

Chemistry: “Kinetics of radioactive decay. Half-life”. Nuclear chemistry. Kinetics of radioactive decay. Decay constant; rate of decay (“activity”). Half-life. Integrated rate law for radioactive decay and other key equations

video

Problems discussed in the videos

document

Nuclear chemistry

document

Logarithm properties

document

Chemistry: “Nuclear chemistry. Binding energy”.  Nuclear chemistry. Atomic number, mass number. Mass defect and binding energy

video

Nuclear chemistry

document

Chemistry: “IUPAC alkane nomenclature”. Introductory organic chemistry topics from the perspective of a general chemistry course. IUPAC alkane nomenclature. Bond-line notation. How to draw all the structural isomers of a compound. Common names for branched substituents: isopropyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl. Naming cyclic alkanes

video

 

 

 

 

 

 

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

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Video descriptions

 

Document descriptions

 

Organic chemistry: “Introduction to drawing resonance structures”. How to draw resonance structures.

video

Resonance structures

document

Organic chemistry: “How to draw resonance structures”. The meaning of resonance. The purpose of resonance is to determine the locations of the charges. How to interpret electron-pushing arrows. Rules for drawing legal and significant resonance structures.

video

Resonance structures

document

Organic chemistry: “Orbital hybridization. Sigma and pi bonds”.  Hybridization of atomic orbitals: sp3, sp2, and sp hybridizations. Sigma vs. pi bonds. Valence orbitals of unhybridized and hybridized atoms. Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR). Orbital geometry. Molecular geometry: tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal, bent, trigonal planar, linear. Bond angles. Orbital diagrams for sigma and pi bonds in ethane, ethylene, and acetylene.

video

 

 

Organic chemistry: “IUPAC alkane nomenclature”. IUPAC alkane nomenclature. Bond-line notation. How to draw all the structural isomers of a compound. Common names for branched substituents (isopropyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl). Naming cyclic alkanes

video

 

 

Organic chemistry: “IUPAC nomenclature for branched substituents”

video

 

 

Organic chemistry: “R and S naming”

video

Stereochemistry

document

Organic chemistry: “R and S naming problems”.

video

Stereochemistry

document

Organic chemistry: “Stereochemistry”.  Stereochemistry. Chiral carbons ("stereocenters") vs. chiral molecules. Meso molecules. Enantiomers and diastereomers. R and S naming

video

Stereochemistry

document

Organic chemistry: “Stereochemistry and meso molecules”

video

Stereochemistry

document

OCHEM ESSENTIALS

Organic chemistry: “How to interpret electron-pushing arrows”.  How to draw the product of a reaction, based on the electron-pushing arrows.

video

Reactivity and arrow-pushing

document

Homework problems for video (1)

document

Homework problems for video (2)

document

Organic chemistry: “Electron-pushing arrows”.  How to use electron-pushing arrows, also known as “curved arrows,” to draw intermediates and products in reaction mechanisms.

video

 

 

Organic chemistry: more on electron-pushing arrows

video

 

 

Organic chemistry: SN2 and SN1 reactions

video

Reactivity and arrow-pushing

document

SN2, SN1, E2, E1

document

Organic chemistry: “SN2—‘ionically bonded’ nucleophiles”. How to use electron-pushing arrows and numbering to draw the product of an SN2 reaction. How to recognize “ionically bonded” nucleophiles.

video

 

 

Organic chemistry: Three types of SN2 reaction

video

 

 

Organic chemistry: “SN2, SN1, E2, and E1 reactions”

video

Reactivity and arrow-pushing

document

SN2, SN1, E2, E1

(these revised handouts differ somewhat from the older versions discussed in the videos)

document

Organic chemistry: “E2 reactions”.  Introduction to the E2 mechanism. E2 stereochemistry--cis vs. trans, determined by anti-periplanar transition state. Protic vs. aprotic solvents. SN2 stereochemistry

video

SN2, SN1, E2, E1

(this revised handout differs somewhat from the older version discussed in the video)

document

Organic chemistry: “SN2 and E2 topics”. How to determine whether a reaction will be SN2, SN1, E2, or E1. Sulfonates; the “tosyl” (Ts, toluenesulfonyl) group; “tosylate” (TsOR, toluenesulfonate). How to rank compounds in order of nucleophilicity.

video

SN2, SN1, E2, E1

(this revised handout differs somewhat from the older version discussed in the video)

document

Organic chemistry: “More on SN2, SN1, E2, and E1 reactions”

video

Stereochemistry

document

SN2, SN1, E2, E1

(this revised handout differs somewhat from the older version discussed in the video)

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Organic chemistry: “Some SN2, SN1, E2, and E1 topics”.  Polar protic vs. aprotic solvents. Carbocation rearrangements. E2 and E1 regiochemistry (Zaitsev vs. Hofmann). Antiperiplanar transition state for E2; E2 and cyclohexane

video

SN2, SN1, E2, E1

(this revised handout differs somewhat from the older version discussed in the video)

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Organic chemistry: “Introduction to Grignard reagents”.  Reaction of Grignard reagents as bases with protic solvents. Reaction of Grignards as nucleophiles with aldehydes and ketones. Introduction to synthesis with Grignards.

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SN2, SN1, E2, E1

(this revised handout differs somewhat from the older version discussed in the videos)

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Organic chemistry: “Alcohol nomenclature”

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Organic chemistry: “Alcohols, oxidation, and reduction”. Oxidation of alcohols (PCC). Reduction of aldehydes and ketones with Grignards to form alcohols. Synthesis with Grignards. Reduction of aldehydes with NaBH4 or LiAlH4 to form alcohols.

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Reduction and oxidation with alcohols

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Organic chemistry: “Alcohols”.  Reaction of alcohols with acids and bases. Oxidation and reduction involving alcohols—PCC, Grignard reagents.

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SN2, SN1, E2, E1

(this revised handout differs somewhat from the older version discussed in the video)

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Reduction and oxidation with alcohols

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Organic chemistry:  “Grignards”.  How to make Grignards and alkyl lithiums (organometallics). Reactions of Grignards and alkyl lithiums (with protic solvents, aldehydes and ketones, and epoxides/oxacyclopropanes). Synthesis problems—using radical halogenation, E2, SN2, oxidation (PCC), and Grignards for synthesis. The “retrosynthesis” technique for solving synthesis problems.

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Radical halogenation of alkanes

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SN2, SN1, E2, E1

(this revised handout differs somewhat from the older version discussed in the video)

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Reduction and oxidation with alcohols

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Organic chemistry: “Organometallics”. Halogenation of alcohols (PBr3, SOCl2). Organometallics (Grignards, alkyl lithiums, organocuprates). Using the retrosynthesis technique to solve synthesis problems involving organocuprates (Gilman reagents).

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SN2, SN1, E2, E1

(this revised handout differs somewhat from the older version discussed in the videos)

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R- and H-

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Reduction and oxidation with alcohols

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Organic chemistry: “Ethers”.  Ethers. Williamson ether synthesis (preparation of ethers via SN2); retrosynthesis. Digression on how to remember the Brønsted-Lowry and Lewis definitions of acids and bases. Cleavage of ethers with haloacid (HX). Effect of positive formal charges on reactivity. Effect of acid or base on reactivity.

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SN2, SN1, E2, E1

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Reactivity and arrow-pushing

(these revised handouts differ somewhat from the older versions discussed in the videos)

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Organic chemistry: “Oxacyclopropanes, also known as epoxides”.  Oxacyclopropanes, also known as epoxides, oxiranes, or ethylene oxides. Ring strain. Synthesis of oxacyclopropanes with peroxycarboxylic acids (“peracids”) such as peracetic acid or MCPBA. Acid-catalyzed ring opening; ring opening with anionic nucleophiles; ring opening with lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4). Diol (“glycol”) synthesis--anti dihydroxylation of an alkene via hydrolysis of oxacyclopropane intermediate; syn dihydroxylation of an alkene with osmium tetroxide (OsO4). Effect of a negative formal charge on reactivity. Regiochemistry of oxacyclopropane ring opening—when does the nucleophile attack the more substituted carbon and when does it attack the less substituted carbon?

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Organic chemistry: “Introduction to proton NMR spectroscopy”. Introduction to proton NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy. Equivalent vs. nonequivalent hydrogens; chemical shift; integration; spin-spin splitting.

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Proton NMR spectroscopy

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Organic chemistry: “Another introduction to proton NMR”. Introduction to proton NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy. Equivalent vs. nonequivalent hydrogens; chemical shift; integration; spin-spin splitting. Degrees of unsaturation

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Proton NMR spectroscopy

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Organic chemistry: “Proton NMR problems”. Proton NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) problems

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NMR table and problems

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Proton NMR spectroscopy

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Organic chemistry: “Infrared spectroscopy problems”

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Problems discussed in the videos

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Organic chemistry: “Proton NMR and infrared spectroscopy problems”. Problems involving both proton NMR and infrared (IR) spectroscopy

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Problems discussed in the video

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Proton NMR spectroscopy

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Tables discussed in the video

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Organic chemistry: “Introduction to mass spectrometry”.  Mass spectrometry. Molecular/parent ion; base peak. Carbon-13; bromine and chlorine isotopes. Fragmentation and substitution

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Organic chemistry: “Addition to alkenes: H2, HX, H2O”.  Alkene addition reactions. Addition of H2 (hydrogenation). Electrophilic additions: addition of HX (hydrohalogenation); addition of H2SO4, H2O (hydration); addition of H2SO4, ROH. Addition of HX in presence of ROOR (radical addition using peroxide initiator). Regiochemistry: Markovnikov vs. anti-Markovnikov

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Alkenes

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SN2, SN1, E2, E1

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Reactivity and arrow-pushing

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Organic chemistry: “Alkenes: hydrogenation; addition of HX”. Addition reactions with alkenes: addition of H2 (hydrogenation); electrophilic addition of HX (hydrohalogenation). Markovnikov vs. anti-Markovnikov.

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Alkenes

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Organic chemistry: “Addition of halogens (HX or X2) to alkenes”. Addition to alkenes. Electrophilic addition of HX (halohydrogenation). Addition of H2 (hydrogenation). Addition of HBr with ROOR (radical addition). Addition of Br2 or Cl2 (halogenation).

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Reactivity and arrow-pushing

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Alkenes

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Organic chemistry: “Alkenes: addition of HBr, BH3, X2”. Alkene addition reactions. Addition of H2 (hydrogenation). Addition of HBr, with or without peroxides. Addition of BH3 to get alcohols (hydroboration-oxidation). Addition of X2.

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Alkenes       

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Reactivity and arrow-pushing

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Organic chemistry: “Hydrogenation and halogenation”. Alkene addition reactions. Problems involving degrees of unsaturation and hydrogenation (addition of H2). E/Z naming of alkenes. Problems involving addition of X2 (halogenation). Forming alkenes from alcohols via E1 (dehydration with H2SO4) or E2.

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Problems discussed in this video series

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SN2, SN1, E2, E1

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Organic chemistry: “Synthesis of alcohols from alkenes”. Alkene addition reactions. Addition of HX, with or without peroxides. Addition of sulfuric acid and water (hydration). Addition of BH3 (hydroboration-oxidation). Oxymercuration-demercuration. Addition of X2 in alcohol. Creation of expoxides (oxacyclopropanes): from alkenes using MCPBA; from vicinal haloalcohols with base. Ozonolysis.

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Alkenes       

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Reduction and oxidation with alcohols

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Organic chemistry: “Dihydroxylation of alkenes”. Alkene addition reactions. Addition of OsO4 (osmium tetroxide) to achieve syn dihydroxylation. Using epoxides to achieve anti dihydroxylation. A synthesis problem. The synthetic toolbox. When does steric hindrance block one face of a trigonal planar intermediate?

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Synthetic toolbox

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Organic chemistry: “Synthesis using addition to alkenes”.  Some synthesis problems involving alkenes and electrophilic addition.

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Organic chemistry: “Alkyne synthesis and reactions”.  Electronegativity of alkyne carbons; acidity of alkynes; use of alkynyl anions as nucleophiles for SN2 reactions and for attack on oxacyclopropanes (epoxides). Alkyne synthesis from dihaloalkanes by double elimination; alkyne synthesis from alkenes by halogenation-double dehydrohalogenation. Alkyne reactions. Hydrogenation of alkynes; hydrogenation of  alkynes with Lindlar catalyst to form cis alkenes; sequential one-electron reduction of alkynes with sodium metal to form trans alkenes. Electrophilic addition of HX to alkynes; electrophilic addition of X2 to alkynes (halogenation). Enols; tautomerization; mercuric ion-catalyzed hydration of alkynes to form ketones

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Organic chemistry: “Radical halogenation reactions”.  Radical halogenation via radical chain mechanisms. Radical halogenation of alkanes (a radical substitution reaction). Radical allylic halogenation using NBS (radical substitution). Radical addition of hydrogen bromide to alkenes in the presence of peroxides (an anti-Markovnikov addition).

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Radical halogenation of alkanes

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Alkenes

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Organic chemistry: “Synthesis problems”. Single- and multi-step synthesis problems. (First-semester final exam review session.)

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Problems discussed in the videos

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SN2, SN1, E2, E1

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Synthetic toolbox

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Organic chemistry: “Organic chemistry tips”

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OCHEM ESSENTIALS

Organic chemistry: “How to interpret electron-pushing arrows”.  How to draw the product of a reaction, based on the electron-pushing arrows.

video

Reactivity and arrow-pushing

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Homework problems for video (1)

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Homework problems for video (2)

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Organic chemistry: “Conjugated pi molecular orbitals”.  Pi molecular orbital diagrams for conjugated systems. HOMO and LUMO

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Organic chemistry: “Diels-Alder reaction”.  Diels-Alder reaction. Dienes, dienophiles; s-cis, s-trans; electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents; “outside” vs. “inside” positions; “endo” vs. “exo” approaches. Molecular orbital diagram for Diels-Alder transition state (Frontier Molecular Orbital Theory); molecular orbital diagrams for endo vs. exo transition states.

video

 

 

Organic chemistry: “Retro Diels-Alder reaction”.  The Diels-Alder and retro Diels-Alder reactions. A synthesis problem.

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Organic chemistry: “Electrocyclic reactions”.  Electrocyclic reactions (a type of “pericyclic” reaction”). Woodward-Hoffmann selection rules; conrotatory vs disrotatory. Molecular orbital explanation for the selection rules, using Frontier Molecular Orbital Theory

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Organic chemistry: “Aromaticity and Huckel's rule”.  How to determine whether a molecule is aromatic, antiaromatic, or nonaromatic. Huckel's rule

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Organic chemistry: “Huckel’s rule: aromatic vs. antiaromatic”. Using Huckel’s rule to determine whether a molecule is aromatic, antiaromatic, or nonaromatic

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Organic chemistry: “Benzenes and phenols”.  Benzene nomenclature; “phenyl” vs. “benzyl”; ortho, meta, and para. Phenol nomenclature. Acidity of phenols. Deprotonated phenols as nucleophiles; preparation of alkyl aryl ethers using Williamson ether synthesis. Kolbe carboxylation. Hydrogenolysis of benzylic ethers

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Organic chemistry: “Electrophilic aromatic substitution”. Electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS) of benzene—halogenation, nitration, sulfonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and alkanoylation. Electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups—activators vs deactivators, ortho/para-directors vs. meta-directors.

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Organic chemistry: “Electrophilic aromatic substitution problems”

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Organic chemistry: “Synthetic strategies for substituted benzenes”.  Strategies for synthesizing substituted benzenes using electrophilic aromatic substitutions--interconversion of nitro and amino substituents; interconversion of alkanoyl and alkyl substituents, Clemmensen reduction, disadvantages of Friedel-Crafts alkylation (rearrangements and overalkylation); reversible sulfonation as a blocking procedure; moderating the activating power of amino and hydroxy substituents. Arenediazonium salts; Sandmeyer reactions; synthesis of phenol from an arenediazonium salt. “Phenyl” vs. “benzyl”; oxidation of benzylic carbons to carboxylic acids with hot potassium permanganate (KMnO4)

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Organic chemistry: “Nucleophilic aromatic substitution”.  Nucleophilic aromatic substitution of benzene. Substitution through benzyne intermediates. Summary of methods for synthesis of phenols. Benzylic oxidation to carboxylic acids; synthesis problems involving benzylic oxidation. Radical benzylic halogenation

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Organic chemistry: “Aldehydes and ketones. Acetals and ketals”. Nucleophilic attack on aldehydes and ketones; the three main categories of nucleophilic attack. A category 1 reaction: attack by a Grignard to form an alcohol. A category 2 reaction: attack by alcohol in acidic conditions to form an acetal or ketal. A category 2 “reverse” reaction: reaction of an acetal or ketal with aqueous acid to form an aldehyde or ketone. How treatment of reagents with acid or base affects reactivity

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Nucleophilic attack on aldehydes and ketones

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Organic chemistry: “More on aldehydes and ketones”. Nucleophilic attack on aldehydes and ketones; the three main categories of nucleophilic attack. Two category 1 reactions: attack by a Grignard to form an alcohol; attack by LAH to form an alcohol. A category 2 reaction: attack by alcohol in acidic conditions to form an acetal or ketal. A category 2 “reverse” reaction: reaction of an acetal or ketal with aqueous acid to form an aldehyde or ketone

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Nucleophilic attack on aldehydes and ketones

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Organic chemistry: “Aldehyde and ketone problems”.  Aldehyde/ketone nomenclature problems. Spectroscopy problems. Hydration (nucleophilic addition of water to aldehydes and ketones to form geminal diols. Reactivity of aldehydes and ketones. Effects of acid or base on reactivity. Mass spectrometry of aldehydes and ketones; McLafferty rearrangement. Nucleophilic addition of thiols to aldehydes and ketones to form thioacetals; desulfurization of thioacetals with Raney nickel.

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Nucleophilic attack on aldehydes and ketones

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Organic chemistry: “Attack of amines on aldehydes and ketones”. Nucleophilic attack by amines on aldehydes and ketones to form imines (category 3) and enamines (category 4). Wolff-Kishner reduction. Nucleophilic addition by hydrogen cyanide on aldehydes and ketones (category 1). The Wittig reaction (category 3); how to make phosphorus ylides

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Nucleophilic attack on aldehydes and ketones

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Organic chemistry: “Baeyer-Villiger oxidation”. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of aldehydes and ketones to form esters. Oxidation of aldehydes to form carboxylic acids

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Organic chemistry: “Enols and tautomerism”.  Enols and enolates; tautomerism. Racemization at an α-carbon; deuterium exchange at an α-carbon. Enols as nucleophiles; acid-catalyzed α-halogenation. Boiling point of aldehydes and ketones

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Organic chemistry: “Aldehydes, ketones, enolates”.  Nucleophilic attack on aldehydes and ketones; acetals and ketals. Enolates. Ylides; Wittig reaction. Mechanism problems.

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Organic chemistry: “Aldol condensation”. Enolates. Tautomerism between aldehydes or ketones and enols. Aldol condensation

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Nucleophilic attack on aldehydes and ketones

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Organic chemistry: “1,2- and 1,4-addition”. 1,2-addition and 1,4-addition (“conjugate addition”) to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones. (This video does not cover 1,2- or 1,4-addition to dienes; that material is covered in the video “Electrophilic attack on conjugated dienes”.)

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Organic chemistry: “Michael addition. Robinson annulation”. Michael addition (conjugate addition of enolate ions). Robinson annulation (Michael addition followed by aldol condensation).

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Nucleophilic attack on aldehydes and ketones

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Organic chemistry: “Naming aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids”. Nomenclature for aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and ethers. General names for the types of carboxylic acid derivatives

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Organic chemistry: “Carboxylic acids and acid derivatives”. Acidity of carboxylic acids; ranking compounds in order of acidity. How to synthesize carboxylic acids: oxidation; carbonation; nitrile hydrolysis. The types of carboxylic acid derivative. The general pattern for nucleophilic attack on carboxylic acids and acid derivatives (addition-elimination). Esterification. Ranking carboxylic acids derivatives in order of reactivity

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Organic chemistry: “Carboxylic acids”. Acidity of carboxylic acids; ranking compounds in order of acidity; acid/base reactions with carboxylic acids; extraction (laboratory separation technique). Carbonation (reaction of Grignard reagent with carbon dioxide to form carboxylic acid). Reduction of carboxylic acids with lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4, or LAH) to form alcohols. Reaction of carboxylic acids with SOCl2 (thionyl chloride) to form acyl chlorides. Decarboxylation

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Reactivity and arrow-pushing

(this revised handout differs somewhat from the older version discussed in the videos)

 

document

Organic chemistry: “Nomenclature for carboxylic acid derivatives”. Nomenclature for acyl halides, anhydrides, esters, amides, nitriles.

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Organic chemistry: “Carboxylic acid derivatives”. Nucleophilic attack on carboxylic acid derivatives, including hydrolysis, saponification, transesterification.

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Organic chemistry: “More on carboxylic acid derivatives”. Nucleophilic attack on carboxylic acid derivatives, including transesterification, ester hydrolysis, attack by Grignards on esters, amide hydrolysis

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Organic chemistry: “Hydrolysis of carboxylic acid derivatives”.  Hydrolysis of carboxylic acid derivatives (acyl halides, anhydrides, esters, amides, and nitriles) to form carboxylic acids. Nucleophilic attack of alcohols and amines on carboxylic acids and acid derivatives to form esters and amides. Lithium aluminum hydride reduction of aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters to form alcohols

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Organic chemistry: “Claisen condensation. 1,3-dicarbonyls”. Overview of nucleophilic attacks on carboxylic acids and acid derivatives through the addition-elimination mechanism. How to make 1,3-dicarbonyls through the Claisen condensation; the Dieckmann condensation (intramolecular Claisen condensation). Reactions of 1,3-dicarbonyls—acetoacetic ester synthesis; malonic ester synthesis

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Organic chemistry: “Reactions of enamines and enolates”. Enamine formation through attack of secondary amines on aldehydes and ketones; enamines as nucleophiles; alkylation of enamines; synthesis problems involving enamines. Aldol condensation; crossed aldol condensation; intramolecular aldol condensation. Claisen condensation; intramolecular Claisen condensation; crossed Claisen condensation; Claisen condensation as a route to ketones. Acetoacetic ester synthesis; malonic ester synthesis. Michael addition; Michael acceptors; Michael donors

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Nucleophilic attack on aldehydes and ketones

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Organic chemistry: “Introduction to amines”. Amine nomenclature. Nucleophilicity and basicity of amines. Synthesis of amines—through SN2, through lithium aluminum hydride (LAH) reduction of amides or nitriles, through the Gabriel synthesis, or through reductive amination. Overview of LAH reductions—of aldehydes and ketones, of carboxylic acids, of esters, of amides, and of nitriles.

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Organic chemistry: “Basicity of aliphatic and aromatic amines”

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Organic chemistry: “Carbohydrates”.  Carbohydrates (sugars). D vs. L sugars; epimers. Ring formation; Haworth projections; α vs. β anomers; furanoses vs. pyranoses. Mutarotation. Glycosides (sugar acetals). Attack of acetone on sugar diol units to form cyclic acetals

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Organic chemistry: “Introduction to amino acids and peptides”. Biochemistry. How to draw amino acids. Acid/base properties of amino acids. Finding net charge of amino acids and peptides (proteins) at a specified pH. pI of amino acids and peptides. Peptide (amide) bonds. Amino acid sequencing with partial digestion by proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin. Total acid hydrolysis (TAH)

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Amino acid table

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Problem discussed in videos

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Organic chemistry: “Amino acids and peptides”. Biochemistry--amino acids, peptides, and polypeptide sequencing. Acid/base properties of amino acids. How to draw amino acids at various pH’s. How to determine pI of a peptide; zwitterion. Acylation of the N-terminus; conversion of the C-terminus into an amide. Total acid hydrolysis (TAH). Sanger’s reagent and Dansyl chloride. Hydrazine (NH2NH2). Proteolytic enzymes--chymotrypsin, trypsin, thermolysin. A polypeptide sequencing problem

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Amino acid table

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Problems discussed in videos

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Organic chemistry: “Amino acid and polypeptide synthesis”.  Amino acid synthesis--Gabriel synthesis; Strecker synthesis. Edman degradation. Polypeptide synthesis--Cbz (carbobenzoxy) and Boc (tert-butoxycarbonyl) amino-protecting groups; protection of the carboxy terminus via ester formation; DCC (dicyclohexylcarbodiimide) carboxy-activating reagent. An example of calculating pI and charge at a specific pH for a long polypeptide

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Amino acid table

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CALCULUS

Video descriptions

 

Document descriptions

 

Calculus: “Basic differentiation rules”. Derivatives of power functions, constant functions, polynomials, root functions, and the natural exponential function (ex)

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Calculus: “Product and quotient rules for differentiation”. The product and quotient rules for differentiation. Derivatives of trigonometric functions

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Calculus: “Position, velocity, and acceleration”.  How to use derivatives to answer questions about one-dimensional motion. Position, velocity, and acceleration

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Calculus: “The chain rule”

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Calculus: “Equation of the tangent line to a function”.  How to use the derivative of a function at a point to find the equation of the tangent line to the function at that point

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Calculus: “Implicit differentiation”.  dy/dx” notation for derivatives. Applying the chain rule using dy/dx notation. Implicit differentiation

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Calculus: “Second derivatives”

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Calculus: “Derivatives of natural logarithms (ln x)”

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Calculus: “Derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions”

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Calculus: “Derivatives of general exponential and logarithmic functions”.  Derivatives of general exponential functions (ax). Derivatives of general logarithmic functions (log x)

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Calculus: “Logarithmic differentiation”

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Calculus: “Percentage growth rates. Elasticity of demand”.  Calculating the percentage growth rate; calculating the percentage growth rate using a logarithmic derivative. Elasticity of demand; relation between elasticity of demand and revenue

video

Problems discussed in the videos

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Calculus: “Critical numbers. Absolute maximums and minimums on a closed interval”.  Local maximums and minimums; absolute maximums and minimums. Critical numbers. The "closed interval method" for finding absolute maximums and minimums

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Calculus: “How derivatives affect the shape of a graph”.  Using the first derivative to determine where the graph of a function is increasing or decreasing. Using the second derivative to determine where the graph of a function is concave up or concave down. The First Derivative Test and Second Derivative Test for local maximums and minimums

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Calculus: “L'Hospital's rule”.  L'Hospital's rule. Indeterminate forms: 0/0, ∞/∞, and 0×∞. Review of the algebra of fractions

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Calculus: “Optimization problems”.  Optimization problems

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Calculus: “First-semester calculus final exam review”.  First-semester calculus final exam review session. Evaluating a limit. Quotient Rule for derivatives. Chain rule. Implicit differentiation. A 57th-order derivative. L'Hôpital's rule. Minimizing a function (First Derivative and Second Derivative Tests). Newton's method. Substitution method for integration; substitution method for definite integrals. Determining constants of integration. Differentiation under the integral sign using Leibniz’s rule; differentiation under the integral sign using the First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus and the Chain Rule. Calculating the volume of solids of revolution using the “disk/washer” method; calculating the volume of solids of revolution using the method of cylindrical shells. Average value of a function

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Problems discussed in the videos

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BIOLOGY

Video descriptions

 

Document descriptions

 

Biology: “Mendelian genetics”.  Mendelian genetics. A Mendelian genetics problem, using a Punnett square. Law of segregation. Law of independent assortment. Exception to the law of independent assortment: linked genes. Crossing over. Wild type vs. mutant phenotype (Morgan notation); true-breeding plants

video

Problems discussed in the videos

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Biology: “Angiosperm reproduction”.  Reproduction in angiosperms (flowering plants). The parts of a flower. Formation of male and female gametophytes (pollen grain and embryo sac). Pollination. Double fertilization. Germination

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Biology: “Plant hormones”. Plant hormones. Auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, brassinosteroids, abscisic acid, ethylene

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Biology: “Signal transduction pathways for the greening response”.  Signal transduction pathways for the greening response in plants. The roles of phytochrome, G-proteins, cGMP, protein kinases, and calcium ions

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Biology: “Mammalian digestive system”.  Mammalian digestive system. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Glucose regulation as an example of homeostasis; insulin and glucagon

video

 

 

 

 

 

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